Participant Observation

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"Taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing".

"Physically and emotionally participating in the social interaction of another society on a daily basis in order to learn about its culture. In practice this usually requires living within the community as a member, learning their language, establishing close friendship ties, eating what they eat, and taking part in normal family activities. By becoming an active participant rather than simply an observer, ethnographers reduce the cultural distance between themselves and the host society.

(Often required in when longitudinal studies in cyberspace websites - also see Deep Hanging Out)